In June 1988, the Audit Commission was overthrown by someone who worked at the Goldman Sachs exchange counter, that the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham had a massive commitment to interest rate swaps. When the Commission contacted the Council, the Director-General said that they should not be concerned, because „everyone knows that interest rates will go down“. The Treasurer called interest rate swaps a „nice little salary.“ Counsel for the Commission, Howard Davies, acknowledged that the Commission abandoned all its views on interest rates and ordered an investigation. There is no consensus on the scope of the designation agreement for different types of IRS. Even a broad description of IRS contracts only covers those whose legs are denominated in the same currency. It is generally accepted that swaps of the same nature, whose legs are denominated in different currencies, are called common currency swaps. Swaps that are determined on a floating rate index in one currency, but whose payments are denominated in another currency, are called Quantos. In the case of an interest rate swap, only interest payments are exchanged. An interest rate swap is, as noted above, a derivative contract. The parties do not take on the debts of the other party. Instead, they simply enter into a contract to pay each other the difference in payment of the loan specified in the contract.
They do not exchange bonds and do not pay the full interest payable on each interest payment date – only differentiated those owed by the swap contract. An interest rate swap is a futures contract in which a flow of future interest payments is exchanged for another on the basis of a certain capital. Interest rate swaps generally include the exchange of a fixed interest rate for a variable rate or vice versa, in order to reduce or increase the risk of interest rate fluctuations or to obtain an interest rate slightly lower than would have been possible without the swap. The effective description of an interest rate swap (IRS) is an exchange agreement between two counterparties that indicates the nature of an interest rate exchange of payments. The most common IRS is a fixed swap in which one party will make payments to the other on the basis of a fixed interest rate initially agreed to obtain repayments on the basis of a variable interest rate index.